The focus of my research is the early development of the cognitive control functions (including cognitive flexibility & inhibition [e.g., selective attention] -- collectively called executive functions) dependent on prefrontal cortex
… includes the neuroanatomical, genetic, & neurochemical mechanisms that make those functions possible.
… and how these functions are modulated by environment (by detrimental factors such as poverty and by facilitative factors such as early education programs)
The roles of storytelling, dance, music, physical activity, and mindfulness in improving executive functions and academic & mental health outcomes
Role of Prefrontal Cortex and its Dopamine Projection in Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Gender Differences in the Dopamine System in Prefrontal Cortex
Development of the Integration of Intention and Action (especially during infancy and preschool)
Cognitive & Perceptual-Motor Development, and their Interrelations
The Social and Emotional Growth of the Individual in Late Adolescence & Adulthood
My lab integrates behavioral, neuroanatomical, neurochemical, & genetic approaches to study fundamental questions about these abilities, environmental effects on them, and their development throughout the lifespan, but especially in infants, preschoolers, and young school-age children.
for example, we study polymorphisms that affect expression of these EF skills
for example, we work on preschool curricula to strengthen these EF skills
for example, we are testing an instructional strategy we developed that we hope will help children with developmental delays, especially such children with autism
My current research is focused on:
Diamond, A. & Ling, D.S. (accepted). Review of the evidence on, and fundamental questions surrounding, efforts to improve executive functions (including working memory. To appear in M. Bunting, J. Novick, M. Dougherty, & R.W. Engle (Eds), An integrative approach to cognitive and working memory training: Perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, and human development. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Diamond, A., & Ling, D.S. (2016). Conclusions about interventions, programs, and approaches for improving executive functions that appear justified and those that, despite much hype, do not. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 34-48. doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2015.11.005 (pdf)
Ling, D.S., Kelly, M., & Diamond, A. (2016). Human-animal interaction and the development of executive functions. In L.S. Freund, S. McCune, L. Esposito, N.R. Gee, & P. McCardle (Eds.), Social Neuroscience of Human-Animal Interaction, (pp. 51-72). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/14856-004 (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2016). Why assessing and improving executive functions early in life is critical. In P. McCardle, L. Freund, & J. A. Griffin (Eds.), Executive Function in Preschool-age Children: Integrating Measurement, Neurodevelopment and Translational Research, (pp. 11-43). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:110.13140/RG.2.1.2644.6483 (pdf)
Ling, D.S., Wong, C. D., & Diamond, A. (2016). Do children need reminders on the Day-Night task, or simply some way to prevent them from responding too quickly? Cognitive Development, 37, 67-72. doi:10.1016/j.cogdev.2015.10.003 (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2015a). Research that helps us move closer to a world where each child thrives. Research in Human Development, 12, 288 - 294. (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2015b). Effects of physical exercise on executive functions: Going beyond simply moving to moving with thought.Annals of Sports Medicine and Research, 2, 1-5. NIHMS:657538 (pdf)
Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Oberle, E., Diamond, A., Lawlor, M. S., Abbott, D., Thompson, K., & Oberlander, T.F. (2015). Enhancing cognitive and social – emotional development through a simple-to-administer mindfulness-based school program for elementary school children: A randomized controlled trial. Developmental Psychology, 51, 52-66. (Special Section on Mindfulness and Compassion in Human Development) PMID:25546595 NIHMS:660668 (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2014a). Executive functions: Insights into ways to help more children thrive. Zero to Three, 35, 9 - 17. (pdf)
Wright, A. & Diamond, A. (2014). An effect of inhibitory load in children while keeping working memory load constant. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-9. (Special issue on Development of Executive Function during Childhood). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00213. PMID:24672502 (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2014f). Want to optimize executive functions and academic outcomes? Simple, just nourish the human spirit.Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, 37, 203-230. NIHMS:605270 (pdf)
This paper, not the whole volume, to be reprinted in 2015 in a book in Portuguese.
Weikum,W. M., Grunau, R. E., Brain, U., Chau, C. M. Y., Boyce, W. T., Diamond, A., & Oberlander, T. F. (2013). Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4) influence executive functions at 6 years of age. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, 7, 1-12. PMID: 24130516 (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2013). Executive Functions. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 135-168. [Epub Sept 27, 2012 ahead of print] PMID:23020641; NIHMS:602706 (abstract) (pdf)
Table 1 and Figure 4 to be translated into Italian. They will appear in the introduction to an Italian book describing a motor program enriched with cognitive tasks for kindergarten children to be published in the spring of 2016..
Diamond, A. (2012a). Activities and programs that improve childrenÕs executive functions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 335-341. NIHMS:602709 (abstract) (pdf)
Appeared in Psychology Progress (which alerts the scientific community to breaking journal articles considered to represent the best in Psychology research)
Diamond, A. (2012b). How I came full circle from the social end of psychology, to neuroscience, and back again, in an effort to understand the development of cognitive control. In R. F. Subotnik, A. Robinson, C. M. Callahan, & P. Johnson (Eds.), Malleable Minds: Translating Insights from Psychology and Neuroscience to Gifted Education, (pp. 55-84). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, U. of Conn. (pdf)
Simpson, A., Riggs, K.J., Beck, S.R., Gorniak, S.L., Wu, Y., Abbott, D., & Diamond, A. (2012). Refining the understanding of inhibitory processes: How response prepotency is created and overcome. Developmental Science, 15, 62-73. [Epub Nov 28, 2011 ahead of print]. PMID:22251293; NIHMS:393793 (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. & Lee, K. (2011). Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4-12 years old. Science, 333, 959-964. PMID:21852486; NIHMS:310326 (abstract) (pdf)
see also: Supplemental material
Reprinted in German in Sabine Kubesch (ed., 2014), Exekutive funktionen und selbstregulation: Neurowissenschaftliche grundlagen un transfer in die pŠdagogische praxis (pp. 145-161). Bern, Switzerland: Verlag Hans Huber AG. (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2011). Biological and social influences on cognitive control processes dependent on prefrontal cortex. Progress in Brain Research, 189, 319-339. (special issue entitled ÒGene Expression to Neurobiology and Behavior: Human Brain Development and Developmental DisordersÓ) PMID:21489397; NIHMS:602710 (abstract) (pdf)
Reprinted in German in Sabine Kubesch (ed., 2014), Exekutive funktionen und selbstregulation: Neurowissenschaftliche grundlagen un transfer in die pŠdagogische praxis (pp. 19-47). Bern, Switzerland: Verlag Hans Huber AG. (pdf)
Shing, Y.L.T, Lindenberger, U., Diamond, A., Li, S-C., & Davidson, M.C. (2010). Memory maintenance and inhibitory control differentiate from early childhood to adolescence. Developmental Neuropsychology, 35, 679-697. NIHMS:249666 (abstract)(pdf)
Diamond, A. (2010). The evidence base for improving school outcomes by addressing the whole child and by addressing skills and attitudes, not just content. Early Education and Development, 21, 780-793. (pdf
Diamond, A. (2009). The interplay of biology and the environment broadly defined. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1-8.(abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2009). All or none hypothesis: A global-default mode that characterizes the brain and mind. Developmental Psychology, 45, 130-138. (abstract) (pdf)
Blair, C. & Diamond, A. (2008). Biological processes in prevention and intervention: Promotion of self-regulation and the prevention of early school failure. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 899-911. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. & Amso, D. (2008). Contributions of neuroscience to our understanding of cognitive development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 136-141. (abstract) (pdf)
Reprinted in (2010), MDExplorer. New Serbian journal focusing on biomedicine.
Diamond, A. Minding controls in curriculum study [Response to letter]. Science. 319 (2008): 1185 - 1186. (pdf)
Diamond, A., Barnett, W.S., Thomas, J., & Munro, S. (2007). Preschool program improves cognitive control, Science, 318, 1387-1388. (abstract) (pdf)
see also: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/27/magazine/27tools-t.html & also:http://www.devcogneuro.com/images/Pubs/National_Scientific_Council_on_the_Developing_Child2009.pdf
Diamond, A. (2007). Consequences of variations in genes that affect dopamine in prefrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex 17, 161-170.(abstract) (pdf)
Davidson, M.C., Amso, D., Anderson, L.C., & Diamond, A. (2006). Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4-13 years: Evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2037 - 2078.(abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2006). The early development of executive functions. In E. Bialystok & F. Craik (eds.), Lifespan Cognition: Mechanisms of Change (pp. 70-95). NY: Oxford University Press. (pdf)
Diamond, A., Carlson, S.M., & Beck, D.M. (2005). Preschool children's performance in task switching on the dimensional change card sort task: Separating the dimensions aids the ability to switch. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28, 689-729. (abstract)(pdf)
Diamond, A. (2005). ADD (ADHD without hyperactivity), a neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from ADHD (with hyperactivity). Development and Psychopathology, 17, 807-825. (abstract) (pdf)
Prevor, M.B. & Diamond, A. (2005). Color-object interference in young children: A Stroop effect in children 3½-6½ years old.Cognitive Development, 20, 256-278. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. & Kirkham, N.Z. (2005). Not quite as grown-up as we like to think: Parallels between cognition in childhood and adulthood. Psychological Science, 16, 291-297. (abstract) (pdf)
Rennie, D., Bull, R. & Diamond, A. (2004). Executive functioning in preschoolers: Reducing the inhibitory demands of the dimensional change card sort task. Developmental Neuropsychology, 26, 423-443. (abstract) (pdf)
Munakata, Y., Casey, B.J., & Diamond, A. (2004). Developmental cognitive neuroscience: Progress and potential. Trends in Cognitive Science, 8, 122-128. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A., Briand , L., Fossella , J., & Gehlbach, L. (2004). Genetic and neurochemical modulation of prefrontal cognitive functions in children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 125-132. (abstract) (pdf)
- Highlighted by the journal in its “In this Issue” page.
- Rated as “Exceptional” by the Faculty of 1000.
- Ranked No. 2 in the Hidden Jewels Top 10 in Neuroscience by the Faculty of 1000.
Kirkham , N.Z., Cruess , L. & Diamond, A. (2003). Helping children apply their knowledge to their behavior on a dimension-switching task. Developmental Science , 6, 449-467. (pdf)
Diamond, A., Lee, E-Y., & Hayden, M. (2003). Early success in using the relation between stimulus and reward to deduce an abstract rule: Perceived physical connectedness is key. Developmental Psychology, 39, 825-847. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A., Kirkham , N.Z., & Amso, D. (2002). Conditions under which young children CAN hold two rules in mind and inhibit a prepotent response. Developmental Psychology, 38, 352–362. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2002). Normal development of prefrontal cortex from birth to young adulthood: Cognitive functions, anatomy, and biochemistry. In D.T. Stuss & R.T. Knight (eds.), Principles of frontal lobe function (p. 466-503). London, UK: Oxford University Press. (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2002). A model system for studying the role of dopamine in prefrontal cortex during early development in humans. In M.H. Johnson, Y. Munakata, & R.O.Gilmore (eds.), Brain Development and Cognition: A Reader. (p 441-493). Blackwell Publishers. (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2001). A model system for studying the role of dopamine in prefrontal cortex during early development in humans. In C. Nelson & M. Luciana (eds.), Handbook of developmental cognitive neuroscience (p. 433-472). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(pdf)
Reprinted in M.H. Johnson, Y. Munakata, & R. Gilmore (eds.). (2002). Reader in brain development and cognition. London, UK: Blackwell Press.
Diamond, A. (2001). Prefrontal cortex development and development of cognitive functions. In Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes (Editors), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (pages 11976-11982). Oxford, UK: Pergamon.
Diamond, A. & Lee, E.-Y. (2000). Inability of 5-month-old infants to retrieve a contiguous object: A failure of conceptual understanding or of control of action? Child Development, 71, 1477-1494. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (2000). Close interrelation of motor development and cognitive development and of the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. Child Development, 71, 44-56 (Special issue: New directions for Child Development in the 21st Century). (abstract)(pdf)
Diamond, A., Churchland, A., Cruess , L., & Kirkham , N. (1999). Early developments in the ability to understand the relation between stimulus and reward. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1507-1517. (abstract) (pdf)
Zagreda, L., Goodman, J., Druin, D.P., McDonald, D., & Diamond, A. (1999). Cognitive deficits in a genetic mouse model of the most common biochemical cause of human mental retardation. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 6175-6182. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (1999). Developmental psychology in its social and cultural context. Society for Research in Child Development Newsletter, 42, 5-8. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A., S. Badali, L. Cruess, D. Amso, M. Davidson and S. Oross. (1999). Long-lasting, selective visual deficits from short-term exposure to high neonatal phenylalanine levels in humans. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. 25:501 - 501
Albert, M., Diamond, A., Fitch, H., Neville, H., Rapp, P., and Tallal, P. (1998). Cognitive Development. In F.E. Bloom, S.C. Landis, J.L. Roberts, L.R.Squire, & M.J. Zigmond (ed.s). Fundamental Neuroscience (p. 1313-1338). San Diego: Academic Press.
Savoy, R. L. I., A. Diamond and K. M. O'Craven (1998). Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex contributions to working memory and inhibition as revealed by fMRI. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. 24:1251.
Diamond, A., Prevor, M., Callender, G., & Druin, D.P. (1997). Prefrontal cortex cognitive deficits in children treated early and continuously for PKU. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development (Monograph #252), 62 (4), 1-207.(abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (1996). Evidence for the importance of dopamine for prefrontal cortex functions early in life. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (London) Series B, 351, 1483-1494. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. & Taylor, C. (1996). Development of an aspect of executive control: Development of the abilities to remember what I said and to "Do as I say, not as I do." Developmental Psychobiology, 29, 315-334. (abstract) (pdf)
Strupp, B. & Diamond, A. (1996). Assessing cognitive function in animal models of mental retardation. Mental Retardation Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 2, 216-226. (pdf)
Diamond, A. (1995). Evidence of robust recognition memory early in life even when assessed by reaching behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (Special Issue [Guest Editor, Nora Newcombe]), 59, 419-456. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (1994). Phenylalanine levels of 6-10 mg/dl may not be as benign as once thought. Acta Pædiatrica, 83 (Supplement 407), 89-91. (pdf)
Diamond, A., Cruttenden, L., & Neiderman, D. (1994). A-not-B with multiple wells: I. Why multiple wells are sometimes easier than two wells. II. Memory or memory + inhibition? Developmental Psychology, 30, 192-205. (pdf)
Diamond, A., Towle, C., & Boyer, K. (1994). Young children's performance on a task sensitive to the memory functions of the medial temporal lobe in adults, the delayed nonmatching to sample task, reveals problems that are due to non-memory related task demands. Behavioral Neuroscience, 108, 659-680. (abstract) (pdf)
Gerstadt, C., Hong, Y., & Diamond, A. (1994). The relationship between cognition and action: Performance of 3½-7 year old children on a Stroop-like day-night test. Cognition, 53, 129-153. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A., Werker, J., & Lalonde, C. (1993). Toward understanding commonalities in the development of object search, detour navigation, categorization, and speech perception. In G. Dawson & K. Fischer (Eds.), Human Behavior and the Developing Brain(p. 380-426). Guilford Press: NY. (abstract)
Diamond, A. (1992). Recognition memory assessed by looking versus reaching: Infants' performance on the visual paired comparison and delayed non-matching to sample tasks. Technical Report IRCS-92-11, University of Pennsylvania, Institute for Research in Cognitive Science.
Diamond, A., Ciaramitaro, V., Donner, E., Hurwitz, W., Lee, E., Grover, W., Minarcik, C. (1992). Prefrontal cortex cognitive deficits in early-treated PKU: Results of a longititudinal study in children and of an animal model. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. 18.
Diamond, A. (1991). Frontal lobe involvement in cognitive changes during the first year of life. In K. R. Gibson & A. C. Petersen (Eds.), Brain maturation and cognitive development: Comparative and cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 127-180). NY: Aldine de Gruyter. (pdf)
Diamond, A. (1991). Neuropsychological insights into the meaning of object concept development. In S. Carey & R. Gelman (Eds.), The epigenesis of mind: Essays on biology and knowledge (pp. 67-110). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.(pdf)
Reprinted in M. H. Johnson (Ed.) (1993), Brain Development and
Cognition: A Reader, Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.
Diamond, A. (1991). Some guidelines for the study of brain-behavior relationships during development. In H. Levin, H. Eisenberg, & A. Benton (Eds.), Frontal lobe function and dysfunction (pp. 189-211). NY: Oxford U. Press. (Google Books) (abstract)
Diamond, A. (1990). The development and neural bases of memory functions, as indexed by the A-not-B and delayed response tasks, in human infants and infant monkeys. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 608, 267-317. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (1990). Rate of maturation of the hippocampus and the developmental progression of children's performance on the delayed non-matching to sample and visual paired comparison tasks. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 608, 394-426. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (1990). Developmental time course in human infants and infant monkeys, and the neural bases, of inhibitory control in reaching. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 608, 637-676. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. (1989). Limbic-dependent memory: Early or late developing? Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. 15 : 343 - 343.
Diamond, A. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1989). Comparison of human infants and rhesus monkeys on Piaget's A-not-B task: Evidence for dependence on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Experimental Brain Research, 74, 24-40. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A., Zola-Morgan, S., & Squire, L. R. (1989). Successful performance by monkeys with lesions of the hippocampal formation on A-not-B and object retrieval, two tasks that mark developmental changes in human infants. Behavioral Neuroscience, 103, 526-537. (abstract) (pdf)
Diamond, A. and K. Boyer (1989). A version of the Wisconsin Card Sort Test for use with preschool children, and an exploration of their sources of error. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11 : 83 - 83.
Diamond, A. (1988). Differences between adult and infant cognition: Is the crucial variable presence or absence of language? In L. Weiskrantz (Ed.), Thought without language (p. 337-370). Oxford U. Press: Oxford. (pdf)
Diamond, A. (1988). Abilities and neural mechanisms underlying A-not-B performance. Child Development, 59, 523-527. (pdf)
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. and A. Diamond (1986). Comparative development in human infants and infant rhesus monkeys of cognitive functions that depend on prefrontal cortex. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. 12 : 742 - 742.
Goldman-Rakic, P. S. and A. Diamond (1985). Evidence for involvement of prefrontal cortex in cognitive changes during the first year of life: Comparison of performance of human infant and rhesus monkeys on a detour task with transparent barrier. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts. 11 : 832 - 832.
Diamond, A. (1983). Behavior changes between 6 to 12 months of age: What can they tell us about how the mind of the infant is changing? Dissertation Abstracts International. 44(01B) : 337. (pdf)
Diamond, A. (1981). Retrieval of an object from an open box: The development of visual-tactile control of reaching in the first year of life. Society for Research in Child Development Abstracts. 3 : 78 - 78.
A list of Dr. Diamond's significant contributions to her field can be found here.